3D and 4D Advantages In General
. Simplified 3D acquisition
. Reduce study time, decrease patient waiting times
. Faster examination procedure
. The C-plane obtained, not possible in 2D
. Complete examination through increased perspective from volume data, … better qualitative and quantitative information to diagnose effectively
. Anatomical views not possible with 2D scanning
. Simplify orientation for referring physician patient
. Morphology, malformation, agenesis (3D, easier in 4D)
. Bone shape abnormalities: spina bifida, dwarfism, club feet on one image, cleft palate vs. cleft lip.
. Skeletal. dysplasia, abnormalities in dynamic (4D): investigation of spine
. Fetal heart (4D): better correlation between valves, chambers and vessels; volume calculation of heart cavities; atrial and ventricular communication; assessment of valvular function.
. Variety of fetal volume evaluation: urinary bladder, stomach, cyst
. Fetal biopsy (4D): umbilical blood sampling puncture with precision, amniocentesis, kidney dilatation,uropathy
. Fetal well-being (4D): normal vs. abnormal fetal gestures; evaluation of fetal sleep vs. awakening. Motion:deglutition, respiratory motion, eyelid, limbs and mouth motion,
fetal digestive peristaltic motion.
. Fetal neuro-myopathy genetic diseases (4D): fetal reactivity / tonicity
Cord insertion using power-Dopper and 3D
.Frontal bones, spatial view of fusion or not
STIC and Fetal Cardio
. Fast, efficient assessment
Information acquired can be accessed offline, allowing processing of reproducible views.
. Simultaneous visualization of 2-3 planes: easier for obstetrician to learn spatial orientation of fetal heart.
. Better correlation between valves, chambers and vessels.
. Volume calculation of heart cavities
. Better access: Left ventricular and right ventricular outflow tracts easier to see with the 3D volume; opening and closing of the foramen ovale difficult to see in 2D, new views now seen with 3D.
. Atrial and ventricular communication: Ventricular wall can be seen in relation to the chambers" or cutaway the top of the atria and look down into the ventricles using Magicut tool. Cut away heart walls and analyze septum alone in rotation.
. 90-degree crossing of Roman">DORV; using 3D rotation view how VSD is related to pulmonary artery.
Diagnose fetal heart defects in utero, prepare pathologic conditions for treatment at birth.
. Exact volume measurement of endometrial hyperplasia (3/4D)
. Equivalent hystersonography realization (3D/4D)
. Virtual hysteroscopy (3D/4D), using slicing technique
. Exact volume measurement of cysts (post-menopausal), polyps, myoma or fibroma.
. Exact localization and measurement of ovarian and endometrial tumors
. Gynecological tumor monitoring after treatment (chemotherapy): effectiveness
. Contrast media use to check tumor vascularization and blood supply
. Gynecological contrast media for tumor follow-up (4D)
. Contrast media to better evaluate the fallopian tubes (tubal permeability, sterility)
. 3D placental abnormalities (placenta previa)
. 3D placenta exact insertion vs inferior segment
. IVD and exact positioning
Breast and Small Parts
. Accurate 4D biopsy in all 3planes, exact placement of the needle
. Breast tumor volume evaluation
. Breast tumor treatment monitoring (chemotherapy)
. Skin tumor infiltration evaluation
. Contrast media use on breast tumors (4D)
. 3 planes to define margins, i.e., microlobulation, papillomas; and extra information
seen in B, C planes that would otherwise be missed in 2D (A plane).
. C plane to view compression vs. retraction patterns of tumors
. Accurate 4D biopsy
. Needle visualization in all 3 planes allow exact seed implantation (Brachi therapy)
. Evaluation of the prostate parenchyma due to addition of coronal plane
. Accurate prostate/urinary bladder volume measurement or/and prostatic/bladder
tumors (adenofibroma, neoplasm, papilloma)
. Correct positioning of urinary catheter
. Exact assessment of the post-micturitional residue
. Precise evaluation of acute abdominal syndrome (3D, C-plane): appendix torsion,
ileum sigmoidal fistula, Crohn's disease, endometriosis, recto-sigmoidal fistula,
. Accurate 4D biopsy (liver, kidney)
. Appendicitis with aberrant location (top of the finger-like projection in the pelvic area
or in the meso-colic positioning. 3D, C-plane)
. Excellent evaluation of parenchyma/tumor volumes
. colic polyps (>to 11 mm) localization in the recto-sigmoidal section (3D, C-plane),
colic tumor infiltration within the wall
. Excellent lithiasis localization in the urethra during renal colic (3D, C-plane)
. Contrast media use in abdominal tumor (kidney, liver)
. Virtual colonoscopy
. Virtual cystoscopy
. Excellent evaluation in3D of cholecystitis (Wall thickness evaluation. Lithiasis is
. better seen in 3D than in2D)
. Abdominal tumor volume follow-up and monitoring in 3D
. Tumor location versus vascularization before chemo-embolism (3D/4D)
. Obstruction determination in icterus mechanism (3D/4D)
. Neonatal brain, 3-plane view of chamber symmetry; volume measurements
. Color or power-angio vessel correlation
. Hip measurement
. Musculoskeletal biopsy guidance (4D)
. Musculoskeletal dynamic examination (4D): rotator-cuff, knee (meniscus positioning),
.Intervertebral disc (nucleus) evaluation, degenerative disc desease (3D)
. Bone microsplit evaluation (3D)
. Broken or fractured patella
. Partial tendon separation evaluation (3D)
. Tendinitis diagnosis and follow-up (breaking-point risk evaI;1;iation)
. Fetal bone-shape abnormalities
. Degenerative arthritis (joint disease)
. Check-up of bone screw placement
. Excellent volume measurement of the normal structures (lens, eyes)
. Tumor findings (retinal melanoma)
. Retinal detachment evaluation (3D)
. Foreign particle detection within the vitreous humor (3D)
. Vitreous proliferative retinopathy evaluation (3D)
(Ref :VISUS Education)