Four dimensional ultrasound has widespread applications in diagnosis, the most important ones are:
1- Follow up of pregnancy and fetal wellbeing throughout the different stages of pregnancy:
- Check the number of embryos.
- Threatened abortion.
- Dating of pregnancy.
- Fetal heart.
- If there is ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus).
- Completion of skull bones.
- Completion of vertebral columns and if there is any problem like neural tube defects or meningocele.
- Diagnosis of Down syndrome.
- Identify the sex of the baby.
- Check upper and lower limbs and facial features.
Second and third trimester:
- Examine the head and brain in a detailed manner.
- Check if there are associated anomalies of the internal organs like, heart, brain, lungs, kidneys, stomach, esophagus, bladder and liver.
- Check the chest, thoracic cage and abdomen.
- Identify if there is chromosomal or congenital anomalies.
- Fetal growth, development and synchronization of its movement.
- Check placental location and associated problems such as, infarctions, insufficiency, identify umbilical cord insertion, thrombosis and coherence in the case of multiple pregnancies, if we use Doppler ultrasound.
- To study the amount of amniotic fluid around the fetus, blood supply to fetal organs and blood flow in the umbilical cord.
- To have a clear idea of fetal features, attitude and surrounding environment.
- Identify risk factors for preterm labor.
Fourth dimensional ultrasound:
Has achieved the greatest applications in fetal wellbeing, diagnosis of congenital and chromosomal anomalies, whether related to fetal surface, internal organs or fetal skeleton.
In addition to the joyful feeling the parents would have by looking at their baby, which has a major role in strengthening the child - parent relationship. It will also help them to accept and handle anomalies (if present). This will minimize post partum psychological stress.
This test needs only 20 - 40 minutes. It is safe and does not need any preparation, except for setting an appointment.
2- Diagnosis of women's infertility and gynecological problems:
- Accurate estimation of ovarian size.
- Follicular measurements (number and accurate size).
- Follicular tracing and to identify ovarian hyperstimulation.
- Cyst aspiration and oocyte retrieval, which is done by monitoring needle insertion and piercing through the ultrasound screen.
- Diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
B- Fallopian tube:
- Differentiate between hydrosalpinx (fluid accumulation inside the tube), and ovarian cysts.
- Evaluate tubal function.
C- Uterine status diagnosis:
- Positive evaluation of endometrial shape, thickness and accurate size.
- Diagnose uterine anomalies by taking complete sections of the uterus.
- Identifying uterine factors interfering with pregnancy like endometrial polyps, fibroids or tumors.
Achieve the purpose of HSG and checking fallopian tubes by (Hycosy), using saline, injecting it into the uterus and following its path. This procedure will avoid the patient being exposed to X-ray, allergic reactions to the dye and anesthesia. It is done at the clinic, a quick and painless procedure.
3- In family planning:
- Check the position of IUD.
- Check if the woman’s body is suitable for IUD or not, if there is, (pregnancy, uterine anomaly, tumors, internal infections, history of ectopic pregnancy or recurrent abortions), the woman cannot use IUD for contraception.
4- Diagnose cancerous tumors:
Four dimensional ultrasound can accurately visualize internal organs and understand the complicated relation between anatomical organs, measuring their accurate size and area, especially if there are irregularities. All this enables the doctor to diagnose tumors and differentiate benign from malignant lesions, especially in the breast, testes, uterus, ovary and cervix. Using Doppler ultrasound can clarify the degree of blood supply.
5- Breast examination and diagnosing masses or tubers.
6- Treatment of male infertility:
- Examining the testes and check if there is varicocele or hydrocele.
- Check the prostate gland.
This device is also helpful in other medical fields such as, urinary tract, kidneys, internal medicine, heart, respiratory system, brain, neurological system and even in ophthalmology.