Fertilization - Fertility Potential

Fertilization - Fertility Potential

FertilizationDefinition of fertilization

It is the union of the male sperm with the female egg. Every month, with each monthly cycle, there are a number of eggs that become ready for maturation, usually one matures, released after maturity and becomes ready for fertilization. The egg becomes mature in a fluid-filled sac in the ovary, called a Follicle. In the middle of the menstrual cycle ovulation occurs when the follicle ruptures and the egg is released. Then this egg will be attracted in the first part of the fallopian tube, called the Fimbria and move along its path towards the uterus.



Sperm Travels to the Egg
Sperm reaches the nucleus of the Egg

The egg remains valid for fertilization for 12-24 hours, if the sperm enters the cervical canal and traverses through the uterine cavity to reach the fallopian tube at the time of fertilization (which we referred to earlier at mid-menstrual cycle), as it meets the egg, the sperm secretes a certain enzyme that smashes the outer crust of the egg so that it can penetrate into the nucleus of the egg and in this moment of docking , a cover is produced by the fertilized egg that does not allow the passage of any other sperm. The fertilized egg, which is called a (Zygote), then begins to divide, and continues to pass through the fallopian tube until it reaches the uterus. This takes around 7 days. This fertilized egg remains in the middle of the uterus for about two days before it sticks to the lining of the uterus and grows. This process is called Implantation.



Fertilization and Implantation of the Embryo


Formation of the Zygote
Fertilization and Implantation of the Embryo



Factors affecting Fertilization:


1 - Age:Implantation

This affects both men and women, explaining the reason of the recurrence of abortions when the woman becomes older. Also the disruption of hormonal action and the emergence of some of the variables in the uterus such as fibroids, increased age, and overall fertility declines significantly in women after the age of 38. The effect of age is usually less with men.

2 - Frequency of the intercourse: Couples who have intercourse 3 times a week have the possibility of a pregnancy 3 times tgreater to those who have intercourse once a week.

3 - The environment and daily habits: With progress, some effects, such as factories that pollute the atmosphere, smoking, excessive or severe exercise which affects the secretion of hormones, (Gonadotropins FSH & LH) for both sexes, all have proven to have an impact on fertility.

- How to define the fertile couple, and the couples who are unable to have children?

Excercise and HypothalamusFor any couple who are in their twenties, and engaged in a natural sexual life, have a 25% chance to have pregnancy each cycle. Nine out of every ten couples will be able to become pregnant on an annual basis.


  • • A: It should be taken into account that whenever the couple are older in age, especially the wife, we have to accelerate doing the necessary tests, especially if there are symptoms that indicate fertility problems, such as irregular cycles or the appearance of hair in unusual areas in the woman's body , history of pelvic surgeries that may have led to adhesions, or an obvious problem with men such as Undescended Testicles, and so on.

    B: Investigations usually start by checking the semen analysis for the man, and it might need to be repeated more than one time, post coital test, making sure of ovulation by several methods, determined by the physician, hysterosalpingogram. And if nothing is determined by those primary investigations the physician may resort to more complicated and effective ways, such as the Laparoscopy process which is diagnostic and therapeutic at the same time, in most cases.

    C – The husband and wife must always attend together and consistently receive treatment from one specialist. Concerned couples may decide to see more than one doctor in the short term. This hinders the treatment and does not work at all.


4 -  Last but not least, the woman and man should accept the situation, in other words, many men feel embarrassed psychologically and socially when they are asked to do semen analysis thinking that it reduces their manhood. Women think that this reduces their femininity. The health and cultural awareness should be available to allow the physician conducting the necessary tests, to give proper treatment and to reach the best results.