major factor in infertility, due to the toxic substances that can play an indirect role in decreasing fertility, premature ovarian failure and early menopause. Many statistical studies done on this topic concluded that:
1- Smokers reach menopause earlier than nonsmokers
2- Smoker ladies who start smoking at early age (before 18 years old) are three times more prone to menopause before they reach 40 years old
3- The fertility and menopause for the female fetuses of smoker mother are also affected
4 – Success rate of IVF for smokers are lower (at least by half) compared to non-smokers
It was proved by multiple researches those toxic substances in cigarettes such as nicotine or anabasine affects estrogen synthesis, its production or its efficacy. It will also affect the ability of oocytes to be fertilized.
On the other hand, smoking with all its toxic components causes an increase in FSH level which will fail the IVF or increase the risk of failure.
1- Increases chromosomal abnormalities in oocytes and its ability to be fertilized (due to direct effect of nicotine)
2- Less number of follicle productions as compared to non-smokers
3- The number of oocytes retrieved from follicles after pickup will be much less than non-smokers
4- Less ability of the follicles to be fertilized
5- The incidence of abortions if she got to pregnant is higher
Smoking has also direct effect on fallopian tubes by affecting cilial motility of its lining, so less ability to transfer the oocyte.
It should be mentioned also that there is a strong relation between smoking and the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease at least 70% more than non-smokers.
Toxic substances in cigarettes may affect the sperms due to the vaginal and cervical secretions.
In summary, smoking does affect the women’s fertility, making her more prone to infertility by its effect on cervical secretion, fallopian tubes hormonal balance, premature ovarian failure and lower success rates in IVF trials.
Some women might not be affected in their fertility even with smoking and they might got pregnant up to the age of 40.
According to a study done by Dr. Jonathan Nelli on mice, he found that toxic substances in cigarettes especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can kill oocyte at early stages of division. Due to the fact that the stages of follicular maturation are the same in humans, it is a direct proof of smoking effect on ovarian tissue. Even female fetuses for smoker mothers are born with less ovarian reserve and are more prone for early menopause and premature ovarian failure.
In addition to that, smoking has side effects on fetuses as follow:
1- Low birth weight
2- Small for gestational age
3- Still birth
4- Sudden neonatal death
5- More incidences of respiratory problems
So if you are a smoker, quit smoking please! If it was not for your own good, do it for the coming generations.
Multiple experiences, either done on humans or animals, show that both are affected by smoking, even average smoking harm.
Smokers have lower sperm count by at least 13-17 %.
Quitting smoking increases the chances of pregnancy not only by increasing sperm count, but by decreasing the incidence of abortions, and fetuses have less percentage to be born with medical problems.
It was found that if sperm count is more than 80 million, the chances of having a fetus with medical problem decrease by 1% compared to 6 % if sperm count was less than 80 million.
The incidence of abortions with low sperm count is 12 % as compared to 6% in high sperm count.
Other than sperm count, the normal morphology of sperm is affected by smoking. Sperm abnormalities are much increased especially head of the sperms.
Smokers have increased number of white blood cells and red blood cells which make a picture similar to infection of the genital area. This has a major role in motility and transfer of
The entire above mentioned negative effects of smoking, should make quitting smoking a serious thing to consider. It is a major thing for medical institutions especially infertility center to make serious campaigns to help people quit smoking.