Childhood consists of most of the developments in someone’s life. During the first few years of life, the child develops almost in everything. The child starts responding to the surrounding environment and learn to adapt with it. The child tries to organize and change functions and potentials to become a complete, small human being. Parents cannot determine certain things for their baby, such as, the desired length, weight or potentials they will have. These things make each person unique and special from others. If the child does not have these desired symptoms, these concerning feelings may affect the child’s emotional development making them hypersensitive. Parents should react in a comforting manner and give their child enough care and love to achieve the ideal development.
Video Infant Development
The Infant sleeps mostly in the daytime hours except those while eating. Most behavior is simply reflexes. Your Baby has newborn characteristics like sucking the lips when hungry. Clenching Mother’s finger when she puts it in the palm of the hand. It is not familiar for the child to express feelings, but occasionally they will smile subconsciously.
2- The Infant From one month to two months old:
The Infant grows quickly day after day. When the Baby is in the prone position, (lying on the stomach), they will elevate their head with an angle of 45°, and move the head right and left. When lying on the back, they can concentrate their eyes on something, and stare at it. In this case, toys like a rattle, or alarm can be a stimulant for them. Most babies clench their fist strongly while they are sleeping and sometimes they will suck their thumbs subconsciously, or even put all their fingers in their mouth. The child may suck their thumb frequently, and when they feel hungry, they will cry sometimes. You may notice that your child is staring at one side continuously. This is related to their position. In order to keep their head in good condition, you should move them, change their position occasionally.
The Infant From two to nine months of age:
3- Two months old Infant:
At this time, the child starts smiling, and this makes Mother happy, consequently the Mother / child relationship becomes more passionate. The child becomes happier and emotionally stable towards others. The child also stays awake more hours during the day and starts sleeping at night.
4- The Infant Three months after birth:
Your child starts to show their initial social behavior, and tries to express themselves by kicking, shaking, smiling or making bubbles, as a reaction to Mother's actions. Their own personality starts to appear. The primitive reflexes disappear, and the voluntary potentials increase. Neck reflex will be replaced by synchronized eye and hand movements i.e. the child tries to touch everything they see. It is the intermediate process to next one. When the child starts playing with toys, any moving and noisy toys are a good option. The child can keep the head in one position for a short time and can suckle and look around at the same time. Making bubbles with the mouth is a way to express happiness and feeling of success and a basic to developing language. Sometimes, they may also seem to play with their voice, using it as a tool to control their feelings, and learning to speak.
During this period, the child needs continuous care from their parents. If the way of raising the child is not synchronized, and unstable, this was learned from the parents, or from the surrounding environment. The child will be unable to organize their habits. This does not mean that parents should follow certain rules or protocols, but they should not change their usual routine of handling their child, especially feeding, playing or when they put the child down to sleep. You may notice that when your child feels bored they may cry. Try to tell a story in a low voice, or lie beside them, and put your hand gently on their back, At the same time, you may also need some rest. If your child is playing, leave them for a while, as long as it is safe around them.
5- Infant Four months old:
At this age, the child starts acting, eating and sleeping in their own special way. They sleep more hours during the night and stay awake more during the day. They can stretch their hand out to reach for the things they want, and can also keep the head in a steady position and support the upper part of the body with both hands while in a prone position.
The neck muscles and the back gets stronger, so they can sit for awhile on their own. If the back and hands are supported, when the child elevates themselves in a vertical way, they stretch their legs, trying to standup. During this time, their weight will be double their birth weight. The best position is lying flat on their back because they can play. Most of the time, they play with their body such as, playing with the hands and put them inside their mouth. When they see their food, they try to put it inside their mouth. At this age, they start to explore and discover things around them by putting things in their mouth and by different feelings they feel. They can begin to differentiate things.
At this age, their vision is still weak, but he can immediately identify their parents and connect them together. If the child is sensitive to voices, they may show interest in the noise made by papers, ticking of clocks. The child can memorize certain events for a few seconds. You can read for your child to improve their potentials and at the same time, it allows your child to know you much better.
Video of lactation
6- Infant Five months old:
The quick gain of weight will decrease, but the activity and social changes are special. During this period, the baby can sit with their back supported by a chair. They can flip on their back or abdomen easily, and can support the upper part of their body, hands and legs upward, higher than the previous period. It is easily noticed also, that synchronization of hand and eyes are more obvious. They can also stretch their hands freely to reach for something.
Hearing responses develop and the baby can move their head toward the voice source. They can also show obvious expressions such as, expressing what they like or dislike. They become happy when they see their bottle if they are hungry, and will cry if you take their toy away.
The child seeks their Mother's attention by crying, screaming or bubbling. When their Mother is sitting with her guests, if Mother ignores them, they may deliberately cry more and more. The Mother can work to develop her baby’s emotions by listening to soft music with her baby.
During this period, the mouth becomes an experimental tool by trying to suck anything reachable with their hands. You should be careful to keep harmful and dangerous things from your child. And even if they are playing alone, you should keep an eye on them.
Their clothes should be comfortable so they can move using a diaper to prevent wetting their clothes.
At this age, parents can start training linguistic potentials for their child. The following advice can be given. You can stimulate your child to talk by developing this behavior and trying to make it a joyful thing. This can give the child a chance to make noises and repeat them. This will stimulate their hearing potential. The child's potential will allow them to transfer information developed by their continuous experience of their own senses such as: Hearing, vision, and touching. These things will be the basics for symbolic thinking. They can fail many times and this is natural. Do not push or blame them. Instead, give them encouragement, regardless of the trial. By this, they will become more confident and at the same time feel their Mother’s care and passion. If they prefer to play alone, leave them alone, but always keep an eye on them.
7- Infant Six months old:
They get very busy at this age. They start crawling and can sit alone, but not for a long time. They become curious and want to know what is going on around them and express their interest in different things. The child shakes anything in their hands. They may focus on a particular part of their body like fingers, toes, ears or nose. Most of the deciduous teeth start to show up at this age.
If you hold them from their armpits, they will try to stay in a standing position with little bending of the knees, but still are not able to stand.
Usually, growth is directed from the head to the feet. That is why the child is still unable to control their legs. But they continue training by bending the knees, extending them and kicking. Crawling is a totally different period for the child. It is more than moving the muscles. They will balance themselves and use each muscle depending on the other one in order to crawl.
During this period, the child can hold moving objects. They can also recognize voices and is able to recognize their parents` voices. The child is psychologically and physically connected to their Mother. That is why they cry if they see their Mother holding another child, not because they are jealous, but they want to show that they are attached to their Mother, and do not want to be left out. They still cannot realize what is safe for them, and at the same time, Mother cannot isolate them from the surrounding environment. You can improve your child's potential by playing with them. For example, hold your baby between your arms in front of a large mirror and allow them to see their reflection on the mirror. They will be amazed by this, the first step to differentiating between themselves, and surrounding things. Point to your reflection and say, “Mama,” and to their reflection, and call their name. It will take some repetition but they will learn much from doing this.
Bathing is another way to have fun and play. Bring some floating toys so they can play with them during the bath. Do not leave them alone as they can drown, even in water only 2 – 3 cm deep.
8- Infant Seven months old:
During this period, you should give more attention to your baby. Prepare some safe tools for maximum protection such as, from sharp angles, walls, electric plugs, gas sources. Do not leave any harmful objects on the floor or ground, because, at this age, the child wants to grab, hold and examine everything around them, then throw it away. Provide them with suitable soft clothes that protect them, and does not restrict movements. They may also start to recognize faces, and be more careful when they see a stranger's face. They do not allow their mother to go to a strange person, and cry and may also call her with a voice that mimics (mama) or (dada). They can recognize a compliment, rejection or blaming from their parents. Most of their first group of teeth will have appeared by this time. Some may develop their teeth earlier, and others may be delayed till the first year of age. This is a normal variation. When the child feels upset and tries to chew things, it means that the teeth are beginning to show. You can massage the gums lightly with your finger. Cover them snugly because they often try to kick their covers during the night.
9- Infant Eight months old:
He starts to play actively, can jump up and down, and tries to strongly grasp anything they can touch. At this age, they act more freely, plays with the curtains and hide inside. You may accidentally find them beneath any object that they can crawl under. They can also hold toys with both hands, can sit alone for awhile and stand up, if you hold their hands. The child starts to express their feelings in different ways, becomes more skillful in using their hands and may grasp little things with their fingers. Their ability to memorize is still limited, but it is developing. They remember how to notice any changes that happen and behave better socially. They may become more stubborn, which is hard for Mother. Try to respect their willing, and feelings as much as possible. But limit some of their desires by justifying the reasons in gentle and low voice.
Most children start making voices like, “mama and dada.” There can be some delay in this for normal children, but if they are unable to make any sound, you should take them to a pediatrician.
10- Infant Nine months old:
During this period, they will move here and there, and once they are awake, they may put their finger between the wall and door, or even in the drawer. They will fall many times and roll on the stairs, tear books and tissue paper and throw it on the ground. They like their Mother following them. They try to mimic her, ask for too many things, too many questions, and refuse to be held, if they were enjoying their time.
Prepare yourself for emergencies, but do not restrict their freedom in exploring things. They may hold a cup or glass and put it inside their mouth.
By this age they will have 4 - 6 teeth.
When they are bored from a toy, they throw it away, and watch how things fall to the ground. They stare at moving objects for a short time and then they try to catch it to look at it closely. If you find a toy that makes your child move their fingers or stabilize and move their body in an active way, it is the best toy for him and will become a favorite.
Speech development is not as great compared to behavioral development. Areas responsible for speech are not well developed, but they learn to talk faster. Speak with your child. Pronounce the words clearly. This will help speech development develop faster.
11- Infant From 10-12 month old:
You will be amazed when you watch your child's first steps until they are one year old, even if the steps were not steady. You will feel like your child was born yesterday. This makes you happy, but your child does not remember these things as you only care about current things like washing dishes, clearing the room or preparing bottles. They are also interested in what Father is doing, like reading a newspaper or helping Mum. They try to simulate their parents and at the same time try to learn good behaviours and manners.
Though the child does not like dealing with strangers, they enjoy watching themselves in the mirror, and sometimes they will spend time watching themselves or walking around at home. They can express themselves using yes or no. It seems that children understand words more than what they can speak. If you asked your baby, “where is dad?” they look at their Father. They also like to hear compliments and shows dissatisfaction when hearing negative words like, “no,” or, “don’t do this.” Most children refuse to deal with strangers.
At this age, they are able to differentiate between inside and outside, and choose the toy they like most, make noise by throwing toys around. This demonstrates they are feeling lonely. By this their mental status develops. Coordination between eye and fingers becomes more focused, similar to adults. They may pick up small things using their thumb and middle finger, and if they want to pick up smaller things, like a small thread they will rotate the fingers. They are not dependent on their Mother and does not like her help, such as trying to drink on their own, even if this causes a fuss.
In fact, parents insist that it is not necessary to buy every toy for their child. Clock ticking sounds and ringing phones amuse their child. Each child shows their individual interests, but most of them enjoy playing with makeup, their dad’s watch and key chain. Do not ignore their curiosity and try to respect their independence.
- Physical exercises for the Infant:
During each period of age, they need certain exercises to grow in a healthy way and hels in the development of the next step or milestones. You will notice that they enjoy these exercises with his father; every child likes movements and exercises:
1 - Exercise is the perfect way to help the child in dealing with their surrounding environment.
2 - Improves physical and mental potentials.
3 - Helps the child to behave in a reasonable way.
4 - Improves self dependence and confidence.
5 - Improves immunity against diseases.
6 - It helps them to become more socially active.
1- The beginning of small activities:
Parents plays a major role in the first month. The baby cannot do anything on their own and wait for Mother to help. It is so important to say, “I am so glad to take care of my baby.” The following are just some of the possible exercises. It helps normal growth and its effect is different from one child to another.
At the beginning, your Baby is used to lying down all the time. After awhile, they start sitting, standing, climbing, then walking. Before starting the first exercise, parents should take care of the following:
1 - Your child will do best, if they feel joy.
2 - It is advised to do exercise 5-10 minutes each time, several times/day.
3 - The best time is before meals or before changing their clothes.
4 - If your baby is very small, you can exercise on a table or on the ground when they become larger. When they are small, cover the surface with a large towel first.
5 - Adjust room temperature to 22c° (72f); take off their clothes and diapers.
6 - Let them get used to these exercises the first time and repeat each movement 4 times. Increase the frequency a little each day. After 14 days, you can change the movements. If you have noticed that they like certain movements, repeat it several times.
7 – Do not force them to exercise when they are in a bad mood. Smile during exercises, talk to them to make them happy, check them carefully, and be careful of their condition and needs. Respect their desires as much as you can.
2- Exercises from 2-6 month of age:
1 - Put your child on their back at the table. Put your thumb in their palm and stretch the arms with the other fingers. Do the same with the other arm. Raise one of the arms above the head slowly, then put it back as you switch to the other arm.
2 - Flip your child on their abdomen and raise the arms to stretch the abdominal muscles, several times after this exercise. Raise the upper part of the body to strengthen the back muscles and it also helps to hold the head much better.
3 - While your child is lying on their back, hold one shoulder, and push it down gently, hold the other arm and bend the elbow several times, then rotate it around the shoulder making big circles and watch how they feel during this exercise.
4 - Put them on their back, hold the arms and support the front of their shoulder at the same time. Let the arms cross like an, “X.” Repeat it in a synchronized way.
5 - Flip them onto their abdomen, stretch the fingers, hold the chest and abdomen and raise them gently. If they are older, you can support the front side of the shoulders, moving them like a bird.
6 - Put them on their abdomen, hold the feet and knees with your hands, and flip them from the right side to the other side. If you want to flip them on their back, raise the feet and legs.
7 - Support the chest and abdomen while they are lying on their abdomen. Do not raise the body, but help them in doing it.
3- Exercises from 7 to 12 month:
1 - Put your baby on their back, sit on your knees, and hold their ankle with your hand, and put them on your bosom, raise their ankles up to raise their whole body. Then put them back slowly (start from the lower part, then the back), then flip them on their abdomen.
2 - Sit on your knees, and put your baby in a squatting position. Hold them at the upper thighs and raise them slowly until you raise the whole body, while the hands and feet are still on the ground, for support.
4- Exercises after 12 months:
1 - Sit on your knees, and get your baby to stand on your lap, facing you. Then hold the shoulders to support them, and help them to climb till they reach your shoulders. Bend backward a little bit to make the climbing a little easier.
2 - Put your baby on their back, sit on your knees in front of them, hold the hands directly with your hands or use a stick from one side, and let your baby hold the other one, raise the stick vertically, so that when they see it, they will grasp it and stand up. This exercise strengthens arms and shoulder muscles.
3 - Put your Baby on their abdomen, hold and support the abdomen, then extend their fingers, raise the body and swing them right and left. If you are moving with your child they will feel as if they are riding on a swing.